18
1735-0522
285
Structure-Earthquake
A Simple Strut-and-Tie Model for Prediction of Ultimate Shear Strength of RC Deep Beams
Arabzadeh
A.
Rahaie
A.R.
Aghayari
A.
1
9
2009
7
3
141
153
19
09
2009
11
01
2014
In this paper a new method based on Strut-and-Tie Model (STM) is proposed to determine the shear capacity
of simply supported RC deep beams and an efficiency factor for concrete with considering the effect of web
reinforcements. It is assumed that, the total carried shear force by RC deep beam provided by two independent
resistance, namely diagonal concrete strut due to strut-and-tie mechanism and the equivalent resisting force resulted
by web reinforcements, web reinforcing reduces the concrete compression softening effect with preventing from the
diagonal cracks opening or concrete splitting. The unknown function and parameters are determined from 324
experimental results obtained by other researchers. To validate the proposed method, the obtained results are
compared with some of the existing methods and codes such as ACI 318-05 and CSA. The results indicate that the
proposed method is capable to predict the shear strength of variety of deep beams with acceptable accuracy.
286
Structure-Earthquake
Construction Wastes as Raw Materials for Geopolymer Binders
Allahverdi
A.
Najafi Kani
E.
1
9
2009
7
3
154
160
19
09
2009
11
01
2014
It has been shown that geopolymerization can transform a wide range of waste aluminosilicate materials
into building materials with excellent chemical and physical properties such as fire and acid resistance. In this
research work, geopolymerization of construction waste materials with different alkali-activators based on
combinations of Na2SiO3 and NaOH has been investigated. A number of systems were designed and prepared with
water-to-dry binder ratio, silica modulus, and sodium oxide concentration were adjusted at different levels and setting
time and 28-day compressive strength were studied. The results obtained reveal that construction wastes can be
activated using a proportioned mixture of Na2SiO3 and NaOH resulting in the formation of a geopolymer cement
system exhibiting suitable workability and acceptable setting time and compressive strength. Laboratory techniques of
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were utilized for studying
molecular and microstructure of the materials.
287
Structure-Earthquake
A Comprehensive Framework for Integrated Management of Opportunities and Threats by Using Dynamic System
Sebt
M.H.
Gerei
A.
Naghash Toosi
H.
1
9
2009
7
3
161
169
19
09
2009
11
01
2014
Risks mean cases of uncertainty of project, the impact of which is realized as a threat (negative aspect)
and/or opportunity (positive aspect). The traditional viewpoint on risk is a negative viewpoint that implies damages,
loss and harmful consequences. Judgments such as this on risk merely emphasize on risks management and pay less
attention to opportunities management. It is clear that some uncertainties might be profitable for the project as in
many cases, it could be the source of loss. In a developed attitude, focus is made on a common process that could
address the integrated management of both opportunities and risks to aim at maximizing the positive effectsopportunities-,
and minimizing negative effects- risks-. Therefore, existence of causal-effect relations between risks,
relationship, effects of risks and opportunities on each other and variety of strategies in facing risks gives no
alternative for risk management team than taking integrated management of risks and opportunities. In another word,
reaction to risks, with respect to risks and/or relevant opportunities, separately, will be never effective. In this paper,
for the purpose of integrated management of risks and opportunities, the stages of quality analysis and reactions to
risk are combined. The method which is used for reaction towards risk is a procedure based on dynamic system.
Dynamic system is highly important among uncertainties due to considering the type and intensity of effects. By using
dynamic system and attention to the relationship between uncertainties (risks/ opportunities), reaction to risk and
decision making on employing suitable strategies to face risks will be more precise and accurate.
288
Structure-Earthquake
Small-Scale Model Test and Three-Dimensional Analysis of Pile-Raft Foundation on Medium-Dense Sand
Baziar
M.H.
Ghorbani
A.
Katzenbach
R.
1
9
2009
7
3
170
175
19
09
2009
11
01
2014
The pile-raft foundation is a combination of a raft foundation with piles. Pile-raft
foundation has been widely designed, assuming all structure loads to be transferred to piles
without considering contribution of the load taken by contact surface between raft and soil.
Methods of analysis currently used in practice are based upon relatively conservative
assumptions of soil behavior or on the less realistic soil-structure interaction. In this study the
bearing -settlement behavior of combined pile-raft foundations on medium dense sand was
investigated. 1g physical model test was performed on a circular rigid raft underpinned with four
model piles. Numerical simulation was also carried out on the model test, using FLAC-3D, to
show compatibility of the numerical analysis with the test. The obtained results showed very good
accuracy of the numerical method used in this study as long as the applied load does not exceed
the working load, while the performance of numerical model was relatively good for the loads
beyond working load.
289
Structure-Earthquake
Landslide Hazard Zonation Using Quantitative Methods in GIS
Vahidnia
M.H.
Alesheikh
A.A.
Alimohammadi
A.
Hosseinali
F.
1
9
2009
7
3
176
189
19
09
2009
11
01
2014
Landslides are major natural hazards which not only result in the loss of human life but also cause economic
burden on the society. Therefore, it is essential to develop suitable models to evaluate the susceptibility of slope failures
and their zonations. This paper scientifically assesses various methods of landslide susceptibility zonation in GIS
environment. A comparative study of Weights of Evidence (WOE), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Artificial
Neural Network (ANN), and Generalized Linear Regression (GLR) procedures for landslide susceptibility zonation is
presented. Controlling factors such as lithology, landuse, slope angle, slope aspect, curvature, distance to fault, and
distance to drainage were considered as explanatory variables. Data of 151 sample points of observed landslides in
Mazandaran Province, Iran, were used to train and test the approaches. Small scale maps (1:1,000,000) were used in
this study. The estimated accuracy ranges from 80 to 88 percent. It is then inferred that the application of WOE in
rating maps’ categories and ANN to weight effective factors result in the maximum accuracy.
290
Structure-Earthquake
Numerical Investigation on Accuracy of Mass Spring Models for Cylindrical Tanks under Seismic Excitation
Goudarzi
M.A.
Sabbagh-Yazdi
S.R.
1
9
2009
7
3
190
202
19
09
2009
11
01
2014
The main objective of this article is evaluation of the simplified models which have been developed for
analysis and design of liquid storage tanks. The empirical formulas of these models for predicting Maximum Sloshing
Wave Height (MSWH) are obtained from Mass Spring Models (MSM). A Finite Element Modeling (FEM) tool is used
for investigating the behavior the some selected liquid storage tanks under available earthquake excitations. First, the
results of FEM tool are verified by analyzing a liquid storage tank for which theoretical solution and experimental
measurements are readily available. Then, numerical investigations are performed on three vertical, cylindrical tanks
with different ratios of Height to Radius (H/R=2.6, 1.0 and 0.3). The behaviors of the tanks are initially evaluated using
modal under some available earthquake excitations with various vibration frequency characteristics. The FEM results
of modal analysis, in terms of natural periods of sloshing and impulsive modes period, are compared with those
obtained from the simplified MSM formulas. Using the time history of utilized earthquake excitations, the results of
response-history FEM analysis (including base shear force, global overturning moment and maximum wave height)
are compared with those calculated using simplified MSM formulations. For most of the cases, the MSWH results
computed from the time history FEM analysis demonstrate good agreements with the simplified MSM. However, the
simplified MSM doesn’t always provide accurate results for conventionally constructed tanks. In some cases, up to
30%, 35% and 70% average differences between the results of FEM and corresponding MSM are calculated for the
base shear force, overturning moment and MSWH, respectively.
291
Structure-Earthquake
Development of Bayesian Inference to Predict household Trip Production (Case Study of Isfahan City)
Mansour Khaki
A.
Afandizadeh
Sh.
Moayedfar
R.
1
9
2009
7
3
203
209
19
09
2009
11
01
2014
Household trip production is not a constant parameter and vary based on socio-economic characteristics.
Even households in each category (households with constant socio-economic characteristics) produce several numbers
of trips. Purpose of present study is to model the variation of household trip production rate in urban societies. In order
to do this, concept of the Bayesian Inference has been used. The city of Isfahan was selected as case study. First,
likelihood distribution function was determined for number of household trips, separating odd and even trips. In order
to increase precision of the function, the composed likelihood distribution function was utilized. To insert households’
socio-economic variables in the process, disaggregate 2 calibrated model were used at the likelihood distribution
function. Statistical indices and 2 test show that likelihood distribution function of numbers of household trip
production follows the Poisson distribution. The final composed likelihood distribution was determined based on
Bayesian inference. Related function was created with compilation of mean parameter distribution function (Gamma
distribution) and numbers of household trip production (Poisson distribution). Finally, disaggregate model was put at
final composed probability function instead of mean parameter. Results show that with Bayesian inference method, it
would be possible to model the variation of household trip production rate in urban societies. Also it would be possible
to put socio-economic characteristics in the model to predict likelihood of real produced trips (not average produced
trips) for each household's category.