18
1735-0522
203
Determination of virtual cohesion in unsaturated sand trenches, using geotechnical centrifuge
Shahnazari
Habib
Salehzadeh
Hosein
Askarinejad
Amin
1
3
2008
6
1
1
9
11
05
2009
11
01
2014
Classical soil mechanics involves the study of fully saturated soils. However, many problems encountered in geotechnical engineering practice involve unsaturated soil, in which behavior is significantly different from classical saturated soil. Negative pore pressure and capillary forces develop a virtual cohesion between the grains of semi saturated soils. This kind of cohesion is dependent on different factors such as grain size, saturation degree, soil-water characteristic curve and relative density of the soil. In this research the virtual cohesion of fine silty sand with 5% water content and a saturation degree of 17% is estimated. A vertical slope is constructed and is accelerated in the geotechnical centrifuge until failure. During the test, the model was monitored by a wireless video camera, attached to the strong box. The cohesionless tested sand was unsaturated. Based on the scaling laws and considering parameters such as sample unit weight, failure acceleration and the sample dimensions, a slope stability analysis was performed, and the virtual cohesion generated in the sample was calculated. The factor of safety of the prototype modeled in the centrifuge is calculated either by Finite Element Method and Finite Difference Method by using the resulted virtual cohesion from physical modeling. Results of this research show the validity of physical modeling for calculating the virtual cohesion in unsaturated silty sand.
204
Pore water pressures in three dimensional slope stability analysis
Askari
Faradjollah
Farzaneh
Orang
1
3
2008
6
1
10
23
11
05
2009
11
01
2014
Although some 3D slope stability algorithms have been proposed in recent three decades, still role
of pore pressures in three dimensional slope stability analyses and considering the effects of pore water
pressure in 3D slope stability studies needs to be investigated. In this paper, a limit analysis formulation for
investigation of role of the pore water pressure in three dimensional slope stability problems is presented. A
rigid-block translational collapse mechanism is used, with energy dissipation taking place along planar
velocity discontinuities. Results are compared with those obtained by others. It was found that water pressure
causes the three-dimensional effects to be more significant, especially in gentle slopes. This may be related to
the larger volume of the failure mass in gentle slopes resulting in more end effects. Dimensionless stability
factors for three dimensional slope stability analyses are presented - including the 3D effect of the pore water
pressure – for different values of the slope angle in cohesive and noncohesive soils.
205
Bond strength of reinforcement steel in self-compacting concrete
Foroughi-Asl
A.
Dilmaghani
S.
Famili
H.
1
3
2008
6
1
24
33
11
05
2009
11
01
2014
Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a highly fluid yet stable concrete that can flow consistently under
its own weight, pass between bars, and fill in formwork without the need of compaction. The application of
SCC effectively resolves the difficulties of concreting in situations with complicated formwork and congested
reinforcements. In this paper, the bond between SCC and steel reinforcement was investigated. The bonding
strengths of reinforcing bars were measured using cubic specimens of SCC and of normal concrete. The SCC
specimens were cast without applying compaction, whereas the specimens of normal concrete were cast by
conventional practice with substantial compaction and vibration. The results showed that SCC specimens
generated higher bond to reinforcing bars than normal concrete specimens and the correlation between bond
strength and compressive strength of NC is more consistent.
206
Cyclic storage design and operation optimization hybrid GA decomposition approach
Afshar
Abbas
Zahraei
S. Ali
Marino
M. A.
1
3
2008
6
1
34
47
11
05
2009
11
01
2014
In a large scale cyclic storage system ,as the number of rule parameters and/or number of operating
period increase, general purpose gradient-based NLP solvers and/or genetic algorithms may loose their
merits in finding optimally feasible solution to the problem. In these cases hybrid GA which decomposes the
main problem into two manageable sub-problems with an iterative scheme between GA and LP solvers may
be considered as a sound alternative This research develops a hybrid GA-LP algorithm to optimally design
and operate a nonlinear, non-convex, and large scale lumped cyclic storage system. For optimal operation of
the system a set of operating rules are derived for joint utilization of surface and groundwater storage
capacities to meet a predefined demand with minimal construction and operation cost over a 20 seasonal
planning period. Performance of the proposed model is compared with a non-cyclic storage system. The
management model minimizes the present value of the design and operation cost of the cyclic and non-cyclic
systems under specified and governing constraints, employing the developed GA-LP hybrid model. Results
show that cyclic storage dominates non-cyclic storage system both in cost and operation flexibility.
207
Stochastic sampling design for water distribution model calibration
Behzadian
Kourosh
Ardeshir
Abdollah
Kapelan
Zoran
Savic
Dragan
1
3
2008
6
1
48
57
11
05
2009
11
01
2014
A novel approach to determine optimal sampling locations under parameter uncertainty in a water
distribution system (WDS) for the purpose of its hydraulic model calibration is presented. The problem is
formulated as a multi-objective optimisation problem under calibration parameter uncertainty. The objectives
are to maximise the calibrated model accuracy and to minimise the number of sampling devices as a surrogate
of sampling design cost. Model accuracy is defined as the average of normalised traces of model prediction
covariance matrices, each of which is constructed from a randomly generated sample of calibration parameter
values. To resolve the computational time issue, the optimisation problem is solved using a multi-objective
genetic algorithm and adaptive neural networks (MOGA-ANN). The verification of results is done by
comparison of the optimal sampling locations obtained using the MOGA-ANN model to the ones obtained
using the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. In the MCS method, an equivalent deterministic sampling
design optimisation problem is solved for a number of randomly generated calibration model parameter
samples.The results show that significant computational savings can be achieved by using MOGA-ANN
compared to the MCS model or the GA model based on all full fitness evaluations without significant decrease
in the final solution accuracy.
209
Monotonic and cyclic loading of new FRP reinforced concrete cantilever beams
Sharbatdar
M.Kazem
1
3
2008
6
1
58
71
11
05
2009
11
01
2014
FRPs (fiber reinforced polymer) possess many favorable characteristics suitable and applicable for
construction industry when compared with steel reinforcement. There are new ideas to use FRPs as
longitudinal or transverse reinforcement for new concrete elements particularly for bridge decks or beams.
Although high tensile strength of FRP is main characteristic for applications at both areas, its weakness to
bending and linear stress-strain behavior with virtually no ductility, makes it vulnerable to probably
premature failures under reversal tension-compression loading during earthquake. A pilot research project
has been conducted to explore the characteristics of large-scale cantilever concrete beams reinforced with
FRP re-bars and grids and were tested under either simulated cyclic loading or monotonically increasing
lateral loading. This paper presents the test parameters and results obtained during research. The analytical
relationships are compared with those recorded experimentally, and test results showed the diagonal cracks
and either rupturing of FRP bars in tension or stability failure in compression bars at long or short shear span
beams. The comparison of nominal moment capacities between analytical and experimental values confirms
that plane section analysis is applicable to FRP reinforced concrete members.